Cost of illness among patients with diabetic foot ulcer in Kano, North Western Nigeria
Fakhraddeen Yahya Muhammad1,&, Ibrahim Danjummai Gezawa1, Mansur Aliyu Ramalan1, Adenike Christiana Enikuomehin2, Andrew Uloko1
1Aminu Kano, Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria, 2Obafemi Awolowo, University Teaching Hospital Ille-Ife, Nigeria
Fakhraddeen Yahya Muhammad, Aminu Kano, Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria
diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major long term complications of poorly managed Diabetes. Foot ulceration is a cause of terrible suffering for those with the condition and their loved ones, the costs are high in economic as well as human terms. This study estimated the cost of illness among patients with Diabetic foot ulcer in secondary and tertiary health facilities in Kano.
it was a cross-sectional study involving ninety diabetic patients with various degrees of foot ulcerations. Questionnaire was used to take the bio data and medical history. Direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect cost were estimated. Ulcer was examined clinically and blood pressure taken. Glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile were done in the laboratory.
male to female ratio of the study participants was 4:1. The mean age was
59.3 ± 15.1yrs. Among the male participants, 68.1% were the breadwinners of
their families while none of the female participants is a breadwinner. About
60% of the participants earn less than $100 monthly and about 20% of them were
unemployed. The total cost of illness of diabetic foot ulcer for the 90 participants
was estimated at $125,327.70 (mean = $1,392.50). Direct cost of illness was
$95,990.70 (mean = $1066.60). It made up 76.6% of the total cost. Direct medical
cost was estimated at $64,828.10 (mean = $720.30). The direct non-medical cost
was estimated at $31,162.61 (mean = $346.25). The total indirect cost was estimated
at $29,331.0 (mean = $325.90). Drugs accounted for the largest share of the
total cost of illness (21.9%), followed by cost of lost job by the patient (20.0%).
Out of pocket payment by the patient or relatives accounted for 90% of payment.
The duration of foot ulcer, location of the ulcer, duration and frequency of
hospital admission, average monthly income and presence of co-morbidities like
hypertension were found to be significantly associated with increased cost of
illness p < 0.05.
the cost of diabetic foot ulcer illness in Kano is very exorbitant and the patients mostly affected are mostly poor, unemployed and the breadwinners of their families. Insurance coverage is also very poor for these patients.