Outbreak of cholera at Dutsen-Abba Ward Zaria local government area, Kaduna State Nigeria 2015: the importance of hygienic practices
Ibrahim Baffa Sule1,&, Mohammed Yahaya1, Usman Rabi1, Ubong Akpan Okon1, Katchy Uche Ifeoma1, Oyeladun Funmi Okunromade1, Aisha Abubakar1, Patrick Nguku1
1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
Ibrahim Baffa Sule, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
cholera is an infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. On August 31, 2015, the Kaduna Ministry of Health received a notification of increase cases of vomiting and diarrhoea at Dusten-Abba in Zaria. A response team was sent to confirm the outbreak, describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify possible risk factors for the outbreak.
we defined cases according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and descriptive study. We retrieved line-listed cases at the ward facility. We interviewed cases at the facility and recruited controls from the community, and administered questionnaires to both cases and controls. We analyzed data using Epi-Info 7 and Microsoft Excel 2016.
a total of 50 cases were recorded, with a median age of 20 yrs and age range
of 1 - 50 yrs. There were more females (68%) than males. Majority of cases
(52%) were under 20 yrs, while all cases are below 50 yrs. Seven (7) deaths
giving a Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 14%. The CFR was higher in females (14.7%)
than in males (12.5%). The index case was seen on August 29, 2015. The outbreak
lasted five days. The last cases were seen on September 2, 2015. The highest
number of cases seen in a day (23) was on third day of the outbreak. Only
two cases (4%) had their samples tested using cholera RDT, and both tested positive.
Drinking un-boiled water (OR: 12.67, 95%CI: 2.33 - 68.93), regular hand washing
(OR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.06 - 0.90) and proper waste disposal practices (OR: 0.07,
95%CI: 0.02 - 0.36) are factors we found to affect cholera infection during
our investigation confirmed a cholera outbreak with a high CFR, especially among females. Poor hygienic practices such as, drinking of un-boiled well water, improper waste disposal, and not washing hands regularly among the populace, were found to be factors that propagate the outbreak.
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