Evaluation of two rapid diagnostic tests for rabies diagnosis under field and laboratory conditions in Nigeria
Philip Mshelbwala1,&, Albert Ogunkoya1, Usman Abdullahi1, Beatty Maikai2
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Philip Mshelbwala, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
very often, suspected rabies cases are hardly sent for laboratory confirmatory diagnosis due to distance to diagnostic facility and cost of transportation. Some brain tissue samples received for diagnosis in Nigeria get decomposed due to lack of storage facilities, inadequate transportation, and distance to laboratories where diagnosis can be conducted, or lack of rapid test. Especially when exposure occurs in rural areas, this may result in misdiagnosis and loss of human life. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies in humans and other animals is essential for timely administration for post-exposure prophylaxis. If the animal is infected, prompt diagnosis may save a patient from unnecessary physical and psychological trauma.
the study was carried out to evaluate two rapid diagnostic rabies tests in South Eastern Nigeria. One hundred samples each of saliva and brain tissues were collected before and after slaughter from apparently healthy dogs brought for slaughter. The salivas were subjected to Rapid Immune Chromatographic Test (RICT) while the brain tissues were subjected to Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFA) and Direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry (dRIT).
five (5%) tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of all the three tests. Result obtained from this study has shown significant agreement in the results of all the tests used.
we recommend the use of RICT and dRIT for rabies virus screening under field and laboratory conditions in all the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and each of the 774 Local Government Areas in the country.
The 2nd International Conference on Rabies in West Africa (RIWA) (Madina)
Rabies in West Africa, a forum to coordinate regular meeting among governments and stakeholders in one-health, was inaugurated in December, 2012 to link Anglophone and Francophone West African countries in the surveillance and control of rabies. It aims to disseminate progress reports on rabies surveillance and control activities in West Africa. Its first conference was jointly sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria and the University of Ibadan Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses. The 2nd conference was held concurrently with the 20th Congress of the Ghana Veterinary Medical Association. The scientific programme included 2 lead papers, 9 symposia and a roundtable discussion. The presented papers which focused on: (i) knowledge, attitude and practices among native community stakeholders; (ii) clinical detection and outbreak investigations; (iii) national laboratory diagnostic activities and vaccination records; (iv) wildlife infection study; and (v) spatial or spatio-temporal distribution of dog bite victims with suspected, probable and confirmed rabies exposures from three countries namely, Ghana (7); Nigeria (4) and Liberia (1). The conference gave consensus report that rabies has remained a neglected disease in West Africa and therefore deserves one-health approach for its control and prevention alongside a stepwise eradication in domestic dogs and humans.
Dates: 28 Oct 14 - 31 Oct 14
Venue: Institute of Local Government Studies
Organizers: The Society for Rabies in West Africa
Contact person: Professor Albert B. Ogunkoya (email@example.com)