Rabies elimination as a one-health model for the tropics: can this be a solution
to the protracted problem in West Africa?
George Beran1,&, Albert Ogunkoya2, Benjamin Emikpe3,4,5, William Tasiame4, Nykoi Jomah3,6, Ayotunde Fasunla3,7, Babasola Olugasa3
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 3Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 4School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 5Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 6Central Agricultural Research Institute, Suakoko, Liberia, 7Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
George Beran, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States
the high number of annual rabies deaths in people and dogs in West Africa raises a fundamental epidemiological question among stakeholders. Rabies control program has successfully reduced rabies deaths in South America and Australia. Why is the programme not producing the desired effect in West Africa? What are the factors responsible for its failure?
a round table discussion sought to answer the following questions: Why should emphasis be placed on human exposure through dog bites and on fatal human cases of rabies? Whereas, laboratory confirmation of exposure to rabies is infrequently done in West Africa, how can it be performed and why is it important? What should be done to prevent exposure or once exposure has occurred? How should the source of rabies exposure in people be identified? How can the source be located? What should be done and why?
frequently, the outbreak of rabies in dogs is identified as the source of human rabies outbreak; hence, it is important for something to be done by the veterinarians and by physicians in post-exposure care of dog bite victims. Vaccination of dogs should be performed not only where dogs have bitten people or exposed to other dogs, but should be universal, no matter how much it costs. Wandering dogs are classified as rabies risks and should be vaccinated.
since the transmission of rabies to people was considered a “One-Health” affliction, we concluded that “one-health” approach would be a novel solution to the protracted problem in West Africa.
The 2nd International Conference on Rabies in West Africa (RIWA) (Madina)
Rabies in West Africa, a forum to coordinate regular meeting among governments and stakeholders in one-health, was inaugurated in December, 2012 to link Anglophone and Francophone West African countries in the surveillance and control of rabies. It aims to disseminate progress reports on rabies surveillance and control activities in West Africa. Its first conference was jointly sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria and the University of Ibadan Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses. The 2nd conference was held concurrently with the 20th Congress of the Ghana Veterinary Medical Association. The scientific programme included 2 lead papers, 9 symposia and a roundtable discussion. The presented papers which focused on: (i) knowledge, attitude and practices among native community stakeholders; (ii) clinical detection and outbreak investigations; (iii) national laboratory diagnostic activities and vaccination records; (iv) wildlife infection study; and (v) spatial or spatio-temporal distribution of dog bite victims with suspected, probable and confirmed rabies exposures from three countries namely, Ghana (7); Nigeria (4) and Liberia (1). The conference gave consensus report that rabies has remained a neglected disease in West Africa and therefore deserves one-health approach for its control and prevention alongside a stepwise eradication in domestic dogs and humans.
Dates: 28 Oct 14 - 31 Oct 14
Venue: Institute of Local Government Studies
Organizers: The Society for Rabies in West Africa
Contact person: Professor Albert B. Ogunkoya (firstname.lastname@example.org)