Outbreak of suspected pertussis in Kaltungo, Gombe state, Northern Nigeria, 2015:
the role of sub-optimum routine immunization coverage
Ahmed Tijani Abubakar1,&, Mahmood Dalhat1, Abdulaziz Mohammed1, Abisola Oladimeji1, Olayinka Ilesanmi1, Uchenna Anebonam1, Nyampa Barau1, Sarafadeen Salami1, Olawunmi Ajayi1, Abba Shehu1, Saheed Gidado2, Patrick Nguku1, Endie Waziri2, David Karatu3, Judith Ishaya3, Peter Nsubuga1
1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria, 2African Field Epidemiology Network, Nigeria, 3Gombe State Ministry of Health, Gombe, Nigeria
Ahmed Tijani Abubakar, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
pertussis is a vaccine preventable disease. However, outbreaks have been documented among vaccinated populations. In December 2015, we investigated a pertussis outbreak in Kaltungo, Nigeria to identify determinants of infection and institute control measures.
we enrolled 155 cases and 310 controls in an unmatched case-control study. We defined cases as residents of Kaltungo with paroxysmal or whooping cough lasting 2 weeks with or without vomiting and randomly selected neighbourhood controls. Using structured questionnaire, we collected data on socio-demographics, clinical and risk factors and analyzed using Epi-info7. We collected twelve nasopharyngeal swabs for laboratory analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction.
median age was 24 months (range 1 - 132 months) for cases and 27 months (range 1 -189 months) for controls; female cases and controls were 86 (55.5%) and 150 (48.4%) respectively. A total of 83 (56.6%) cases were within age group 12 - 59 months. Age-specific-attack-rate was 83/1,786 (4.7%); Age-specific-case-fatality-rate was 21/83 (25.3%); Age-specific-proportional-mortality-ratio was 21/24 (87.5%). Vaccination records revealed 61 (39.4%) zero doses and 30.1% Pentavalent dropout. With bivariate analysis, contact with a case (OR = 8.8; 95% CI = 5.4 - 14.3), parental refusal of vaccination (OR = 20.2; CI- 10.2 - 29.8), mother having informal education (OR = 5.4; CI-3.4-8.6) and being a Muslim (OR = 3.9, CI = 2.5 - 6.0) were significantly associated with having pertusis, while receiving Pentavalent 3 (OR = 0.3, CI - 0.2 - 0.4,) was protective. Multivariate analysis revealed parental refusal (adjusted OR = 27.8; CI = 8.8 - 87.7), contact with a case (AOR = 7.9, CI = 4.3 - 14.7, P = 0.000), belonging to the Muslim faith (AOR = 2.0; CI = 1.1 - 3.5) and having mothers with informal education only (AOR = 4.7, CI - 2.6 - 8.4) as independent predictors of pertussis infection.
sub-optimal vaccination due to parental refusal and informal education of mothers were major determinants of pertussis infection. We conducted awareness campaigns using key immunization messages targeted at the informally educated persons. We mobilized resources for case management, contact vaccination and health education in public gatherings, worship places and schools.
Nigeria CDC/Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme 2<sup>nd</sup> Annual Scientific Conference (Abuja)
To create a platform for epidemiologists and public health physicians to share their scientific works, NCDC/NFELTP organized the 2nd annual scientific conference with the theme "strengthening one health through field epidemiology training" at Transcorp Hilton Hotel, Abuja, Nigeria from July 5-7, 2017. The objectives of the conference were to provide residents and graduates a forum to share findings from their field activities; provide training opportunity for trainees on scientific communication; provide an opportunity for epidemiological networking as well as create a forum to discuss pertinent public health issues. In attendance were dignitaries from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USAID, WHO, Africa CDC, Ministries Departments and Agencies, University officials and other implementing partners. With the current rise in zoonotic diseases, the conference also featured a two-day pre-conference workshop on One Health which prioritized zoonotic infectious diseases in Nigeria using standardized prioritization methods. A second workshop focused on antimicrobial resistance. There were 38 oral presentations, 60 poster presentations and 2 plenary sessions. The presentations covered various sub-themes ranging from outbreak investigations, case management, health system strengthening, vaccine preventable diseases, communicable diseases and surveillance. The conference featured a National Night and climaxed with awards to outstanding presenters.
Dates: 05 Jul 17 - 07 Jul 17
Venue: Transcorp Hilton Hotel
Organizers: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control / Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme
Contact person: Dr Patrick Nguku (email@example.com)