Conference abstract

Evaluation of two rapid diagnostic tests for rabies diagnosis under field and laboratory conditions in Nigeria

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:5(10).13 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.5.10.531

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Keywords: Rabies, antigen, diagnosis, dRIT, DFA, RICT, Nigeria
Abstract

Evaluation of two rapid diagnostic tests for rabies diagnosis under field and laboratory conditions in Nigeria

Philip Mshelbwala1,&, Albert Ogunkoya1, Usman Abdullahi1, Beatty Maikai2

1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Philip Mshelbwala, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: very often, suspected rabies cases are hardly sent for laboratory confirmatory diagnosis due to distance to diagnostic facility and cost of transportation. Some brain tissue samples received for diagnosis in Nigeria get decomposed due to lack of storage facilities, inadequate transportation, and distance to laboratories where diagnosis can be conducted, or lack of rapid test. Especially when exposure occurs in rural areas, this may result in misdiagnosis and loss of human life. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies in humans and other animals is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis. If the animal is infected, prompt diagnosis may save a patient from unnecessary physical and psychological trauma.The study was carried out to evaluate two rapid diagnostic rabies tests in South Eastern Nigeria.

Methods: one hundred samples each of saliva and brain tissues were collected before and after slaughter from apparently healthy dogs brought for slaughter. The salivas were subjected to Rapid Immune Chromatographic Test (RICT) while the brain tissues were subjected to Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFA) and Direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry (dRIT).

Results: five (5%) tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of all the three tests. Test outcomes from this study have shown significant agreement in the results of all three techniques.

Conclusion: we concluded that RICT and dRIT may be used for rabies virus screening under field and laboratory conditions in all the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and each of the 774 Local Government Areas in the country.