Conference abstract

Upsurge in meningitis cases in Jirapa district, Upper West Region 2017

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(101).29 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.3.101.209

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Keywords: Cerebrospinal meningitis, Jirapa District in Upper West District, streptococci pneumonia
Oral presentation

Upsurge in meningitis cases in Jirapa district, Upper West Region 2017

Francis Broni1,&, Ernest Akyereko1, John Ojo1, Christopher Tamal1, Gideon Oteng1, Marlon Mensah1, Donne Ameme1, Samuel Sackey1, Kofi Nyarko2, Ernest Kenu1, Frederick Wurapa1, Edwin Afari1

1Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana, 2Namibia FELTP, Namibia

&Corresponding author
Francis Broni, Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Accra, Ghana

Abstract

Introduction: cerebrospinal meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges around the brain and spinal cord, characterized by sudden onset headache, fever, neck stiffness and sensitivity to light. The most common form of meningitis is bacterial which includes Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenza, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Epidemics occur annually between late November and June in the African belt and constitutes a major health threat. Beginning 2017, Ghana reported 69 suspected cases with 9 deaths in Ashanti and Upper West Region. By the 8th epidemiological of 2017, Jirapa District in the Upper West Region reported 41 suspected cases of meningitis with six deaths. We investigated to verify the diagnosis, identify risk factors and implement control measures.

Methods: we conducted a descriptive study. A case-patient was anybody living in Jirapa and its environs and reporting with or without fever of acute onset and with one or more of the following signs: neck stiffness, poor sucking (in infants), bulging fontanelles (in infants), altered consciousness, irritability, seizures, and other meningeal signs. We reviewed medical records, conducted active case search and contact tracing. We interviewed case-patients and contacts and conducted an environmental search. We reviewed laboratory records for CSF examinations. We analyzed data by person, place and time.

Results: of 61 case-patients, 32 (53.3%) were female. The case fatality was 6/61 (9.8%). Median age was 16.5 years (interquartile range: 1- 86 years). Most affected age group were below 10 years.

Conclusion: streptococci pneumonia was responsible for the upsurge in cases. Children were mostly affected.