Conference abstract

Pertussis outbreak near an international border, Ghana, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(106).30 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.3.106.273

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Keywords: Pertussis, Duasidan community, mop-up vaccination
Oral presentation

Pertussis outbreak near an international border, Ghana, 2016

Samuel Dapaa1,&, Florence Nzilanye1, Donne Ameme1, George Khumalo Kuma1, Samuel Sackey1, Ernest Kenu1, Edwin Afari1

1Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana

&Corresponding author
Samuel Dapaa, Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana


Introduction: pertussis is a vaccine preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Globally, an estimated 16-million pertussis cases with about 195,000 deaths occur annually. In Ghana, pertussis vaccine is a component of pentavalent vaccine administered in three doses during infancy. On 4th August 2016, Dormaa Municipality (DM) received report of suspected pertussis outbreak in Duasidan, a Ghanaian community sharing borders with Cote d’Ivoire. We investigated the outbreak to establish its existence, magnitude and implement control measures.

Methods: we conducted a descriptive study from 4th to 26th August 2016. We reviewed medical records, interviewed case-patients and their caretakers, traced and administered Azithromycin prophylaxis to contacts and took nasopharyngeal swabs for laboratory confirmation. A suspected pertussis case was any person in Duasidan, presenting with cough or coughing fits with or without whoop, vomiting, red-eye, fever, sneezing or runny nose from 1st July to 26th August 2016. Descriptive data analysis was done and categorical data presented as frequencies and relative frequencies. Median and interquartile range was calculated for continuous data.

Results: of 1040 residents, 123 were case-patients giving overall attack rate of 11.8% with no deaths. Sex-specific attack rates were 12.7% (58/457) for males and 11.1% (65/583) for females. Attack rate among children age less than three years was 53.6% (67/125). All case-patients were from Duasidan community. Median age was three years (IQR: 1,7 years) and modal age was two years. Of the case-patients, 94(76.4%) had three doses of pentavalent vaccines. Third dose of pentavalent vaccination coverage in DM was 74% in 2016. Nasopharyngeal swab results from sub-regional reference laboratory could not be completed.

Conclusion: a suspected pertussis outbreak occurred in Duasidan affecting mostly children aged less than three years. Pentavalent vaccination coverage was low in DM. Case-management, chemoprophylaxis and health education helped control the outbreak. Mop-up vaccination campaigns were justified preventive measures.