Conference abstract

Determinants of low birth weight in neonates born in three hospitals in Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, 2016: an unmatched case-control study

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(2).11 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.3.2.115

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Keywords: Low birth weight, Brong Ahafo Region, case control study
Oral presentation

Determinants of low birth weight in neonates born in three hospitals in Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, 2016: an unmatched case-control study

Zakariah Adam1,2,&, Pricillia Nortey1, Ernest Kenu1, Edwin Afari1, Donne Ameme1, Delia Bandoh1

1Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ghana, 2Ghana Health Service, Bolgatanga, Ghana

&Corresponding author
Zakariah Adam, Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ghana Health Service, Bolgatanga, Ghana

Abstract

Introduction: globally, about 20 million Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants are born yearly. A very high proportion (96.5%) occur in developing countries. In Ghana, the recent incidence was estimated at 160 per 1000 births and has not witnessed any reduction in the last decade. The WHO estimated that 7,876 LBW deaths occurred in Ghana in 2014. In Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, the estimated incidence of LBW has consistently been higher than the national average since 2010 with 397 neonatal deaths in 2014. There have not been studies done to identify the determinants for LBW delivery in the Brong Ahafo Region. This study sought to identify these determinants.

Methods: a case control study design was used and the study population was mothers with singleton deliveries. A case was defined as a mother who delivered a baby with a birth weight below 2500grams in any of the study sites from December 2015 to April 2016 and a control defined as mothers with delivery of a baby with weight between 2500 grams and 3400 grams at the same site as a case within 24 hours of delivery of the case from December 2015 to April 2016. The cases were purposely selected while the controls were randomly selected within 24 hours of delivery of a case. A total of 120 cases and 240 control mothers with singleton deliveries were recruited for the study. STATA 13 software was used to analyze for the odds and adjusted odds ratios.

Results: after controlling for confounders like planned pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity and previous LBW in stepwise backward logistic regression, First trimester hemoglobin < 11g/dl (aOR 3.14; 95%CI 1.50-6.58), delivery at 32-36weeks gestation (aOR 13.70; 95%CI 4.64-40.45), delivery below 32 weeks gestation (aOR 58.5; 95%CI 6.7-513.9), Secondary Education of mothers (aOR 4.19; 95%CI 1.45-12.07), living with extended family (aOR 2.43; 95%CI 1.15-5.10, living alone during pregnancy (aOR 3.9; 95%CI 1.3-11.7), and not taking iron supplements during pregnancy (aOR 3.2; 95%CI 1.1-9.5).

Conclusion: determinants of LBW were: preterm delivery, mothers with secondary education, living alone during pregnancy, not taking iron supplementation and mothers with first trimester hemoglobin below 11g/dl. To curb this challenge, much attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services.