OUTBREAK OF CHOLERA IN AGONA TOWN, AHANTA WEST DISTRICT, WESTERN REGION, GHANA-2016
Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(21).16
Contact the corresponding author
Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, outbreak, response, Ahanta West
Outbreak of cholera in Agona Town, Ahanta West District, Western Region, Ghana-2016
Daniel Tetteh Agudey1,2,&, Emmanuel Kojo Tinkoran2, Kofi Asemanyi-Mensah2, Edwin Afari1, Fredrick Wurapa1, Samuel Oko Sackey1, Michael Adjabeng2, Donne Ameme1, Ebenezer Kofi Mensah1
1Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana, 2Ghana Health Service, Ghana
Daniel Tetteh Agudey, Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana
Introduction: vibrio cholerae causes an estimated 3-5 million illness and 100,000-130,000 deaths annually. In 2015, a total of 692 cholera cases with 8 deaths (CFR = 1.14%) were recorded from all ten regions of Ghana. Western Region recorded 52 cases with 1 death (CFR = 1.9%) in 2015. On November 15 2016, a confirmed cholera case was reported by Public Health Laboratory from Agona Town in Ahanta West district. Agona Town has an estimated population of about 930. We investigated to establish the extent of the reported outbreak, identify the source of infection and support implementation of control and preventive measures.
Methods: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. A suspected case was a person having acute watery diarrhea with or without vomiting at Agona Town from October 28.2016 to December 30.2016. We reviewed medical records, interviewed key stakeholders and conducted environmental assessment. Rectal samples from case-patients were collected and sent for laboratory investigation. Data was managed and analyzed using MS Excel. Univariate analyses were expressed as frequencies and proportions.
Results: of 14 case-patients, 71.4 %( 10/14) were males; median age was 32 years (interquartile range 5-79 years). Overall attack rate was 0.03% (14/43,930) and a case fatality of 7.1% (1/14). Age-group > 40 years were mostly affected 43% (6/14). The index case, a 5-year old male reported on 21st November 2016. There was no history of travel of parents. Vibrio cholerae 01 serotype Inaba was isolated from rectal samples. We identified broken down public latrine with faeces leaking around which is close to where the index case resides.
Conclusion: vibrio cholerae serotype Inaba caused the outbreak affecting mostly older persons. Broken down public latrine could have been the source of infection. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) intervention initiated based on our recommendation. This played a major role in controlling the outbreak.