Conference abstract

Trend of childhood pneumonia in an Urban District in Ghana - 2017

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(26).16 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.3.26.122

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Keywords: Childhood pneumonia, surveillance data, children under five years
Oral presentation

Trend of childhood pneumonia in an Urban District in Ghana - 2017

Dora Dadzie1,&, John Yabani2, Samuel Sackey1, Priscilla Nortey1, Donne Ameme1, Ernest Kenu1, Edwin Afari1

1Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana, 2Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana

&Corresponding author
Dora Dadzie, Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Accra, Ghana


Introduction: childhood pneumonia remains a major health problem especially in developing countries with an annual death toll of 473,000 in Africa and 6,450 in Ghana. The pneumonia surveillance system in Ghana is a facility-based system, requiring health facilities to routinely submit monthly summaries to the national database. We described the trend and distribution of pneumonia in children under five years over a five-year period in Tema Metropolis.

Methods: we reviewed 2012-2016 surveillance dataset, laboratory registers and medical cause of death certificates. A case of pneumonia is clinically diagnosed by fever and fast breathing with characteristic x-ray changes and confirmed by microbiological testing. We assessed reporting completeness, calculated annual incidence and mortality rates, and performed descriptive analysis. We identified outbreaks by displaying case frequencies against C2 thresholds.

Results: from 2012 through 2016, there were 3337 cases and 54 deaths (CFR = 1.6%) reported by 24% (13/55) of facilities which even reported infrequently. Females accounted for 48% (1625/3337) of reported cases. There were higher rates observed in infants (mean incidence = 21/1000 12) than 1-4-year group (mean incidence = 8/1000 2.8). Between the period of review, the highest incidence (15/1000) was recorded in 2012 and the lowest (5/1000) in 2016, with a mean incidence of 10.8/1000 (SD = 4). Incidence peaked in June-July and October-November. The highest mortality rate (104/100,000) was recorded in 2015 by one sub-district which also persistently recorded highest incidence rates. Two outbreaks occurred during the five-year period.

Conclusion: generally, there was a decline in childhood pneumonia incidence and mortality over the study period in the district. The data is however interpreted with caution as erratic facility reporting may distort the real trend. Following our recommendations, community-based health education on pneumonia by health workers has been intensified, specifically targeting mothers of infants, and data providers have been sensitized on frequent reporting.