Conference abstract

Analysis of meningitis outbreak data, Techiman Municipality, November 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:3(53).23 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.3.53.198

Contact the corresponding author
Keywords: Meningitis outbreak, case fatality rates, secondary data analysis
Oral presentation

Analysis of meningitis outbreak data, Techiman Municipality, November 2016

Stephen Nyarko-Ameyaw1,&, George Khumalo Kuma1, Charles Lwanga Noora1

1Ghana Health Service, Brong Ahafo, Ghana

&Corresponding author
Stephen Nyarko-Ameyaw, Ghana Health Service, Brong Ahafo, Ghana

Abstract

Introduction: meningitis outbreak records high case fatality rates (CFRs) of 50% or more and may leave survivors with disabilities. Between December 2015 and May 2016, Techiman Municipality experienced meningitis outbreak, with 79 cases and 18 deaths, (CFR: 22.8%). We analyzed the outbreak data to determine the distribution of cases among weeks, sex, sub municipals and time interval between onset and time seen at the hospital to provide information for interventions on future occurrence.

Methods: we conducted a descriptive secondary data analysis of meningitis outbreak data in the Techiman Municipality from January to May 2016. We abstracted data from line lists, case base forms and patient folders at health facilities and district levels. Variables collected were sex, sub municipality, date of onset, date seen at facility, and disease outcome. And entered into MS Excel 2010 and analyzed to determine counts, percentages and proportions and presented in tables and charts.

Results: a total of 79 meningitis cases were reported over the five months. The outbreak started from epidemic week one to week 14 with the highest frequency of 13 cases (16.5% of total cases) in week four and the highest weekly case fatality of 66.7% occurring in week one. Majority of the cases (24.1%) came from Techiman North Sub Municipal and Nkwaeso Sub-municipal recorded the highest case fatality of 50.0% Females were more affected forming 60.8% of the total cases but males recorded a higher CFR (32.3%). Those who reported early to hospital, < 24 hours after onset, had less CFRs (17%) than those who reported after 48 hours (50%).

Conclusion: cases and fatalities were higher in early weeks of the outbreak. Occurrence was highest among females, but CFR was highest among males. Sub districts far from the municipal hospital had higher CFRs. Patients who reported early to the health facilities had lower CFRs. We recommended enhanced meningitis education, especially on early reporting to health facilities to reduce CFRs in future outbreaks.