Conference abstract

Low measles vaccination caused measles outbreak in Kamuli District, Uganda, July 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2017:6(17).20 Dec 2017.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2017.6.17.499

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Keywords: Disease outbreaks, measles, vaccination, Uganda
Plenary

Low measles vaccination caused measles outbreak in Kamuli District, Uganda, July 2016

Lydia Nakiire1,&, Paul Edward Okello1, Alex Riolexus Ario1

1Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Kampala, Uganda

&Corresponding author
Lydia Nakiire, Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Kampala, Uganda

Abstract

Introduction: measles is highly contagious, 90% of unimmunized people contract the virus when they are exposed. The Ministry of Health, Public Health Emergency Operations Centre was notified of a measles outbreak in Kamuli District located in Eastern Uganda on 11th July, 2016. We conducted an investigation to establish the scope of the outbreak, risk factors for transmission, estimate vaccine effectiveness and vaccine coverage and control the outbreak.

Methods: we conducted a case control study in a ratio of 25 cases individually matched by age and village of residence with 100 controls. Mantel Haenzel Odds Ratios were calculated using Epi Info version 7.2 to as certain the risk factors. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness and district measles coverage.

Results: children under 5 years (5.3/10,000) had the highest attack rates compared to those 5 years and above (1.1/10,000). Males and females were equally affected with the attack rate of males (1.7 cases/10,000) slightly higher than that of females (1.3 cases/10,000). Butansi Sub-county was the most affected sub county (15 cases/10,000) while Nabwigulu was the least affected sub-county (0.4 cases/10,000). Lack of prior measles vaccination was associated with measles cases (ORMH=6.8, CI: 1.8-25). The estimated district immunization coverage was 58% and estimated vaccine effectiveness was 82%.

Conclusion: children under 5 years were affected more than older children. Lack of prior measles vaccination caused the measles outbreak. Measles vaccination coverage was lower than the recommended 95% national coverage. We recommended mass immunization of 6 - 59 month old children in the district.