Conference abstract

Rabies virus identification and its molecular studies in slaughtered dogs from Zuru Emirate of Kebbi State, Nigeria

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2019:10(13).12 Dec 2019.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2019.10.13.824

Contact the corresponding author
Keywords: Rabies, dog, Nigeria, paraphyletic group, monophyletic group
Oral presentation

Rabies virus identification and its molecular studies in slaughtered dogs from Zuru Emirate of Kebbi State, Nigeria

Aliyu Yakubu1,2,&, Grace Kia1,3, Oluyinka Okubanjo1,4, Nura Shehu1,2, Joy Atawodi1,2

1Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 2Africa Center for Excellence on Neglected Tropical Diseases and Forensic Biotechnology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State, 3Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 4Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Aliyu Yakubu, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: rabies is a deadly infection with almost 100% case fatality, resulting in the death of about 60 thousand people worldwide annually. It has the greatest impact in developing world and transmission from dogs represents more than 99% of all human cases reported globally. This study was carried out to determine the presence of rabies virus in the brain tissues of dogs slaughtered for human consumption within Zuru emirate, Kebbi state and to phylogenetically analyse them.

Methods: fourty nine (49) brain tissue samples from apparently healthy dogs were collected from dog slaughter slabs in 3 markets within Zuru Emirate. The samples were subjected to the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT) to detect rabies virus antigen. Subsequently, hemi nested polymerase chain reaction (hnPCR) targeting the rabies virus N-gene was conducted and the sequences obtained were analysed phylogenetically with others from the GenBank.

Results: about 12.2% (6/49) were DFAT positive for the rabies antigen, although rabies amplicons (126bp) were obtained from only 6.1% (3/49). These sequences were analysed phylogenetically and one of the sequence (RVZ25) formed a monophyletic group with a rabies sequence (KX148239.1) isolated from a dog in Senegal, West Africa. RVZ40 sequence formed a monophyletic group with another Nigerian sequence (KR080521.1) from Niger state. A second sequence (RVZ9) formed a paraphyletic group with RVZ40 and KR080521.1, indicating a single evolutionary origin.

Conclusion: the phylogenetic results obtained suggest an intracontinental and interstate transboundary transmission of rabies virus. Thus, there is need to strengthen transboundary disease surveillance and monitor movement of dogs into and within Nigeria.