Conference abstract

Risk factors for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in donkeys and human contacts in Ebonyi State, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(1).14 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.1.680

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Keywords: Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, donkey, multidrug- resistance
Opening ceremony

Risk factors for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in donkeys and human contacts in Ebonyi State, 2016

Okoro Aja Nwenyi1,&, Gabriel Ogundipe2, Ikeoluwapo Ajayi3, Akanni Abdulazeez4

1Veterinary Services Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Abakaliki, Nigeria, 2Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 3Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 4Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Okoro Aja Nwenyi, Veterinary Services Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as a hospital problem in the 1960s and has spread from hospitals to the community and to livestock. Livestock-associated MRSA poses an occupational risk to abattoir workers. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonizing donkeys in Ebonyi State; the prevalence of MRSA in the humans in contact and the risk factors for colonization in the human subjects.

Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted in a slaughter slab in Ohaukwu Local Government Area using cluster sampling technique. 195 donkeys and 50 slab workers were selected. Nasal swabs were obtained and cultured to identify Staphylococcal organisms. Antibiotic sensitivity tests using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was carried out on the MRSA positive isolates to determine their resistance profiles. Interviewer administered questionnaires was used to obtain data on risk factors from the human subjects. Data was analyzed using means, standard deviation and proportions as well as chi square test. The criterion for statistical significance was p < 0.5.

Results: four breeds were identified (Idabari, Fari, Duni and Auraki). 144 (73.9%) jennies (female donkeys) and 51 (26.2%) jacks (male donkeys) were sampled. Prevalence of MRSA in donkeys was 79.5%. Breed and sex were not significantly associated with MRSA colonization in donkeys (X2 = 0.150, P = 0.698, X2= 1.136, P = 0.286). Mean age of slaughter slab workers was 32.4 9.7, 72% females and 28% males. Majority (84%) were married. Mean number of years of work at slaughter slab was 7.6 6.6. Majority (82%) did not use any personal protective equipment while at work. The prevalence of MRSA slaughter slab workers was 54%. Donkey MRSA isolates showed multidrug- resistance (100% to ampicillin, bacitracin, oxacillin and cefoxitin; 99% cloxacillin, and mupirocin; 96% vancomycin). Susceptibility to gentamicin was 96%.

Conclusion: the study identified high prevalence of MRSA colonization in donkeys and human contacts and high resistance of donkey MRSA to antimicrobials that are not routinely used in donkeys. Molecular characterization of MRSA at donkey-human interface is recommended to understand the direction of spread of MRSA at this interface.