Conference abstract

Seroprevalence of rubella-specific antibodies and factors associated with its transmission among children aged 0-10 years, in Jos, Nigeria, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(13).21 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.13.685

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Keywords: Children, ELISA, Jos, sero-positivity, rubella
Opening ceremony

Seroprevalence of rubella-specific antibodies and factors associated with its transmission among children aged 0-10 years, in Jos, Nigeria, 2016

Hyelshilni Samuel Waziri1,&, Fatima Giwa2, Adebola Olayinka1, Muhammad Balogun1, Ndadilnasiya Waziri1, Patrick Nguku1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Hyelshilni Samuel Waziri, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: rubella infection during early pregnancy may result in congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), stillbirth or miscarriage. Children often are the source of infection to their mothers. Routine rubella vaccination is yet to be introduced in Nigeria. We determined the sero-prevalence of rubella-specific antibodies in school children 0-10 years and factors associated with its transmission in Jos.

Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study. We recruited children aged 0-10 years from five and 17 schools in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Areas (LGAs) respectively using a modified cluster sampling. Blood sample was collected from each child and analyzed for rubella IgG and IgM using ELISA. We administered a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and risk factors information from the participants. We conducted univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine proportions and significant factors at 95% confidence interval.

Results: a total of 405 children were studied with a mean age of 6.3 years (SD 2.5), and 220 (54.3%) were females. Rubella IgG was positive in 336 (83.0%) of children while only 9 (2.2%) children were positive for IgM. None of the children had ever received rubella vaccine. On bivariate analysis, age ≥ 5 years, [OR (CI) 1.8 (1.0-3.1)], lack of western education, [OR (CI) 2.3 (1.2 - 4.3)] and residence in Jos North [OR (CI) 10.4 (3.2-33.9)] were significantly associated with rubella sero-positivity. On multivariate analysis, only residence in Jos North was significantly associated with rubella seropositivity. OR (CI) 10.4 (2.4 - 43.9).

Conclusion: a large proportion of children were still susceptible to rubella virus infection. Children above five years, lack of western education and living in Jos North LGA were risk factors for rubella sero-positivity. Parents were enlightened on dangers of CRS and the need for rubella vaccine. The result of the study was shared with Plateau State to encourage fast tracking of introduction or rubella vaccination in Nigeria.