Conference abstract

Antimicrobial use and resistance in Nigeria: situation analysis and recommendations, 2017

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(2).21 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.2.701

Contact the corresponding author
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Nigeria, epidemiologic determinants, inappropriate prescribing
Opening ceremony

Antimicrobial use and resistance in Nigeria: situation analysis and recommendations, 2017

Abiodun Egwuenu1,&, Joshua Obasanya1, Iruka Okeke2, Oladipo Aboderin3, Adebola Olayinka4, Dooshima Kwange5, Abiodun Ogunniyi1, Estelle Mbadiwe6, Love Omoniyei6, Hamzat Omotayo7, Mercy Niyang8, Fatima Abba1, Frank Kudla9, AMR-TWG10, Chikwe Ihekweazu1

1Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership, University of Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria, 3Obafemi Awolowo University/Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 4Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria, 5Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Nigeria, 6Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership, Nigeria 7World Health Organization, Nigeria, 8University of Maryland, Baltimore, United states, 9Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja, Nigeria, 10Antimicrobial Resistance Technical Working Group, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Abiodun Egwuenu, Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: it is projected that by 2050, 40% of 10 million deaths from Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) will occur in Africa. Understanding the AMR situation in Nigeria will provide an excellent case study of the challenges faced by low-income countries.

Methods: the information was derived from review of reports, programmatic data and documents, literature search, key informant interviews and a series of systematic reviews. Data was entered into purpose-built templates and synthesized thematically.

Results: in Nigeria, the ratio of licensed pharmacies to over-the-counter medicine stores was 15 to 1 in 2016. A systematic review determined that median prevalence of persons using antibiotics without prescription to be 46.8%. In animals, antibiotics such as tetracyclines constituted over 80% of antimicrobials sold or used in 2014 and 2015. Antibiotic resistance was documented in humans, to drugs recommended by the country’s treatment guidelines for commonly occurring infections such as cholera and cerebrospinal meningitis. Majority of the studies documented recovery E. coli, non-typhoidal Salmonella and antibiotic residues from livestock, pets and animal products, most commonly in poultry. The drivers of AMR included unregulated antibiotic sales, proliferation of unlicensed medicine stores, shortage of licensed prescribers, poor AMR awareness and use of antibiotics in animals without prescription.

Conclusion: we recommend that the government enforce regulations on antibiotic sales of antibiotics to humans and animals and increase awareness on AMR in Nigerian communities. Identified gaps from the situation analysis were used to develop a National Action Plan for AMR.