Conference abstract

Predictors of overweight and obesity among secondary school adolescents Abuja, Nigeria, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(25).28 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.25.607

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Keywords: Overweight, obesity, adolescents, secondary school, Abuja, Nigeria
Opening ceremony

Predictors of overweight and obesity among secondary school adolescents Abuja, Nigeria, 2016

Ijeoma Gladys Leo-Nnadi1,&, Adamu Shehu2, Mohammed Nasir Sambo2, Saheed Gidado3, Abisola Oladimeji1, Patrick Nguku1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 3African Field Epidemiology Network, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Ijeoma Gladys Leo-Nnadi, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: overweight and obesity in adolescence are major risk factors for chronic diseases in adulthood. Initially thought to be a disease of Western world, obesity is now increasing in developing countries like Nigeria. This study determined the predictors of overweight and obesity among secondary school adolescents in Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study, using multistage sampling technique to select 782 adolescents from secondary schools in Abuja. Pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity levels of the participants. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to determine the dietary habits of the subjects. We used anthropometric measures and Body Mass Index (BMI) to assess prevalence of overweight and obesity. We calculated frequencies, means, proportions, and standard deviations. We determined associations between variables using odds ratios (OR) at 95% confidence interval and chi square at p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: overall mean age of the participants was 14.3 ± 2.5 years; 428 (55.7%) were females, and 43.2% were from families with average monthly income of above N100,000. The mean BMI was 20.5 ± 4.0. Sixty-five (8.3%) subjects were overweight and 152 (19.4%), obese. Five hundred and twelve (65.5%) were physically inactive while 626 (80.1%) had poor dietary habits. Logistic regression analyses showed that the significant predictors of the subject’s likelihood of being overweight or obese were age 10 - 14 years (adjusted OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 2.5 - 5.3), high income family (adjusted OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 3.1), poor dietary habit (adjusted OR 7.7, 95% CI: 3.8 - 15.7).

Conclusion: the predictors of overweight and obesity among Abuja adolescents were age 10 - 14 years, high family income and poor dietary habit. We are currently working with Government and educational institutions to introduce nutrition education in school health programs and implement family focused sensitization to reduce cardiovascular risk associated with overweight and obesity.