Conference abstract

Prevalence of modifiable risk factors for hypertension among secondary school adolescents, Abuja, Nigeria, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(26).28 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.26.608

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Keywords: Hypertension, modifiable risk factors, adolescents, secondary school, Nigeria
Opening ceremony

Prevalence of modifiable risk factors for hypertension among secondary school adolescents, Abuja, Nigeria, 2016

Ijeoma Gladys Leo-Nnadi1,&, Adamu Shehu2, Mohammed Nasir Sambo2, Saheed Gidado3, Abisola Oladimeji1, Patrick Nguku1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 3African Field Epidemiology Network, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Ijeoma Gladys Leo-Nnadi, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: globally, hypertension is one of the prominent non-communicable diseases and its increased prevalence had been noted in adolescents. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity have consistently been implicated in adolescents’ hypertension. This study assessed the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of hypertension among secondary school adolescents, Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: using multistage sampling technique, 782 adolescents were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Adapted physical activity questionnaires for children and 24 hour dietary recall were used to determine their physical activity levels and dietary habits respectively. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and biochemical parameters were recorded to assess presence of modifiable risk factors. Frequencies, means, proportions, and standard deviations were calculated. Associations between variables were determined using odds ratios at 95% confidence interval and chi square at p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: the mean age of the 782 participants was 14.3 ± 2.5years; 428 (55.7%) were females, 394 (50.4%) in rural, 425 (54.4%) in private schools. Overall, 187 (24%) and 33 (4%) were pre-hypertensive and hypertensive respectively; 65 (8.3%) were overweight and 152 (19.4%), obese. Twenty-four subjects (3.1%) had history of smoking, 261 (33.1%) had ever drank alcohol, 512 (65.5%) were physically inactive and 626 (80.1%) had poor dietary habits. Logistic regression showed that the significant predictors of adolescents’ likelihood of being hypertensive were overweight and obesity (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 - 4.0), poor dietary habit (AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 2.2 - 8.6), attending private (AOR: 0.001, 95% CI: 0.001 - 0.01) and urban (AOR: 0.2, 95% C1:0.1 - 0.4) schools.

Conclusion: the prevalence of modifiable risk factors especially pre-hypertension, overweight and obesity among Abuja adolescents were high. We are currently engaging the government and educational institutions to intensify health education focusing on lifestyle modifications, to reduce the future complications due to hypertension.