Conference abstract

2016/2017 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria: age and sex have no effect on treatment outcome

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(3).21 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.3.705

Contact the corresponding author
Keywords: Lassa fever, treatment outcome, survival
Opening ceremony

2016/2017 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria: age and sex have no effect on treatment outcome

Adesola Yinka-Ogunleye1,2,&, Olabanji Ipadeola3, Mohammed Saleh4, Elsie Ilori1, Chioma Dan-Nwafor1, William Nwachukwu1, Amina Mohammed1, Stephen Ohakanu4, Kayode Fasominu4, Winifred Ukponu4, Emmanuel Agogo1, Favour Makava3, Olubunmi Ojo1, Chikwe Ihekweazu1

1Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria, 2US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United states, 3African Field Epidemiology Network, Nigeria, 4University of Maryland, Baltimore, United states

&Corresponding author
Adesola Yinka-Ogunleye, Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria


Introduction: Lassa fever is an endemic Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in Nigeria. Improvements in case detection and treatment outcome could be achieved by understanding the transmission dynamics better and applying the lessons from previous outbreaks considering the resource constrained setting. This study assessed age-sex disparities in treatment outcome using data from 2016/2017 lassa fever outbreak surveillance in Nigeria.

Methods: Lassa fever surveillance and outcome data from December 2016 to May 2017 from 14 States was extracted from the VHF platform. Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out using Epi info 7 for socio-demographics and treatment outcome. Possible association between treatment outcome and selected variables (age, sex) were analyzed using Chi square at 0.05 level of significance.

Results: there were 168 confirmed cases of Lassa fever during the study period, data was complete for 139 (82.7%). More men were affected (56%), as 61 of the 139 patients (46%) were female. The median age for all the patients treated was 32 years (IQR 25 - 44). Symptoms at presentation prior to treatment included fever (67%), nausea and vomiting (34.5%), diarrhea (14.4%), and intense fatigue (39%) while only 10.8% experienced unexplained bleeding. A total of 75 (54%) patients were treated and discharged alive, while 64 (46%) died. No significant association was found between gender and treatment outcome (p value = 0.976). Although survival was higher among patients aged 15 to 24 years (72%) and lowest among patients who were 45 years and above (35%), age of the patient was not significantly associated with the adverse treatment outcome (p-value = 0.06).

Conclusion: for the 2016/2017 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria, age and sex did not influence the treatment outcome of the recorded cases. There is a need for further analysis and more large scale studies on Lassa fever treatment outcomes.