Conference abstract

Descriptive analysis of Lassa fever outbreak data in Edo State, Nigeria, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(54).05 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.54.636

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Keywords: Lassa fever, outbreak, Edo State
Opening ceremony

Descriptive analysis of Lassa fever outbreak data in Edo State, Nigeria, 2016

Ibrahim Abiodun Seriki1,&, Lilian Okeke1, Osamwonyi Irowa2

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Edo State Ministry of Health, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Ibrahim Abiodun Seriki, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease endemic in West Africa. It is transmitted to humans via contact with food or household items contaminated by rodent, mastomys natalensis urine or droppings. Human-to-Human transmission can occur in communities or hospitals with poor infectious control practices. The burden of Lassa fever is not known because itís asymptomatic in 80% of cases in addition to non-specific symptoms. The objective of the study is to describe the cases in person, place and time which will help inform decision making.

Methods: we obtained the suspected Lassa fever cases data for all 18 Local Government Areas (LGA) in Edo State for the period of January to December, 2016. Data abstraction was done to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory information. A descriptive study was done and Data was analyzed using Epi Info to determine frequencies and proportions. Bivariate analysis was done to determined factors associated with outcome using confidence interval set at 95%.

Results: out of 946 suspected cases, 49 (5.2%) were laboratory confirmed (RT - PCR positive). Modal age group was 20 - 29 years, 15 (30.6%) and 27 (55.1%) were males. Esan-West, 12 (24.5%) and Etsako-West, 13 (26.5%) Local Government Areas had most cases. More cases were recorded between January to April with peak in February 17 (35.4%). Case fatality rate (CFR) among the 39 cases with known outcome was 51.3%. CFR among the suspected cases was 8%. Late confirmation of illness (> 7 days of onset) was associated with death [OR = 2.5 (95% CI 0.6 - 11.3)].

Conclusion: the peak of the outbreak was in February. Case fatality rate of the outbreak was high with cases detected early having better outcome.