Conference abstract

Active case search for Avian influenza among human contacts of H5N1 infected poultry birds, Plateau State, Nigeria, March, 2017

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(56).05 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.56.638

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Keywords: Avian influenza, poultry, flu, patients, outbreak
Opening ceremony

Active case search for Avian influenza among human contacts of H5N1 infected poultry birds, Plateau State, Nigeria, March, 2017

Odekunle Bola Odegbemi1,&, Assad Hassan1, Ephraim Nwanga1, Adedoyin Fetuga1, Lilian Okeke2, Muhammad Balogun1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Odekunle Bola Odegbemi, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: Avian influenza (AI) infected birds shed influenza viruses in their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections occur when viruses get into a person's eyes, mouth or when inhaled. Plateau State had the highest number of infected farms in Nigeria in the 2017 H5N1 virus resurgence. Efforts to stamp out the outbreak were directed at the control of infected poultry population. However, unlike birds which can be controlled by depopulation, man cannot. Hence, the need to carry out active case search to detect possible bird-to-man cases and prevent man-to-man transmission.

Methods: we did active case search in 14 AI-affected farms. Healthcare facilities around affected farms were also visited for active case search and records review. We searched for patients who met the case definition for influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples collected were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Abuja.

Results: altogether, seven suspected cases were line-listed. The mean age was 33.9 SD 18.2 years and four (57.1%) were males. Four (57.1%) of the cases presented with sore throat, cough and difficulty in breathing. Majority of the patients, 4 (57.1%) were from Jos South LGA. Two of the suspected influenza patients tested positive for Flu B while none was confirmed positive for highly pathogenic Avian Influenza or any other Influenza A sub-type.

Conclusion: influenza B detected in the suspected patients is a common seasonal flu among humans and was not likely to have come from AI-infected birds. There was probably no human case in this recent outbreak of AI in Plateau State. We sensitized poultry attendants on the need for improvement in infection prevention and control measures.