Conference abstract

Factors associated with suspected pertussis outbreak in Rimin Gado, Kano State, Nigeria, 2016

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(6).21 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.6.683

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Keywords: Pertussis, outbreak, Kano State
Opening ceremony

Factors associated with suspected pertussis outbreak in Rimin Gado, Kano State, Nigeria, 2016

Visa Ibrahim Tyakaray1,&, Bola Lawal1, Jenom Danjuma1, Sabiu Aliyu1, Emmanuel Irek1, Mukhtar Abdulaziz1, Patrick Nguku1, Mahmood Dalhat1, Charles Akataobi1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Visa Ibrahim Tyakaray, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: pertussis or whooping cough, though vaccine-preventable, has remained a public health threat despite the availability of vaccine. In May 2016, we investigated a pertussis outbreak in Gidan Kanawa and Ungwar Yamma settlements in Kano State, North-West Nigeria to characterize the outbreak and determine its associated factors.

Methods: we conducted an unmatched case-control study with ratio 1:1. A case was defined as any person < 10 years in Gidan Kanawa and Ungwar Yamma settlements with a-cough lasting up to 2 weeks with paroxysmal or whooping cough with/without vomiting; while a control was any person < 10 years in the neighborhood without cough. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, immunization history and probable risk factors using a semi-structured questionnaire. We calculated frequencies and proportions to characterize the outbreak in time, place and person. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with the outbreak. Ten oropharyngeal swabs were taken from cases for culture in the laboratory.

Results: a total of 83 cases were line listed, 43 (52.5%) were males. Median age of cases was 36 months (range 2 - 108 months) with case fatality rate of 9.7%. The attack rates were 1.92% in Ungwar Yamma and 22.1% in Gidan Kanawa. Among cases, the drop-out rate for pentavalent vaccine was 33.3% while 61 (59.8%) were zero dose for pentavalent vaccine in both settlements. The independent factors associated with pertussis, were concerned with the contact with cases (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 4.5; 95% CI = 2.2 - 9.5) while the history of complete pentavalent vaccination (AOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1 - 0.8) was protective. Laboratory results were inconclusive.

Conclusion: the major determinants of the outbreak were concerned with the contact with cases and having zero or no dose of pentavalent vaccine. Cases were managed with antibiotics and supportive treatment. We recommended immediate vaccination of contacts.