Conference abstract

Outbreak of cholera at Dutsen-Abba Ward Zaria local government Area, Kaduna State Nigeria 2015: the importance of hygienic practices

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(9).21 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.9.591

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Keywords: Cholera, outbreak, hygienic practices, Kaduna
Opening ceremony

Outbreak of cholera at Dutsen-Abba Ward Zaria local government Area, Kaduna State Nigeria 2015: the importance of hygienic practices

Baffa Sule Ibrahim1,&, Yahaya Mohammed1, Rabi Usman1, Ubong Okon1, Uche Katchy1, Oyeladun Okunromade1, Aisha Abubakar2, Patrick Nguku1

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Baffa Sule Ibrahim, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: cholera is an infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. On August 31, 2015, the Kaduna Ministry of Health received a notification of increase cases of vomiting and diarrhoea at Dusten-Abba in Zaria. A response team was sent to confirm the outbreak, describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify possible risk factors for the outbreak.

Methods: we defined cases according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and descriptive study. We retrieved line-listed cases at the ward facility. We interviewed cases at the facility and recruited controls from the community, and administered questionnaires to both cases and controls. We analyzed data using Epi-Info7 and Microsoft Excel 2016.

Results: a total of 50 cases were recorded, with a median age of 20 years and age range of 1 - 50 years. There were more females (68%) than males. Majority of cases (52%) were under 20 years. Seven (7) deaths were recorded giving a Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 14%. The CFR was higher in females (14.7%) than in males (12.5%). The index case was seen on August 29, 2015. The outbreak lasted five days. Last cases were seen on September 2, 2015. Highest number of cases seen in a day (23) was on the third day of the outbreak. Only two cases (4%) had their samples tested using cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and both tested positive. Drinking un-boiled water (OR: 12.67, 95% CI: 2.33 - 68.93) was associated with being a cholera case while regular hand washing (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.90) and proper waste disposal practices (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.36) are protective factors.

Conclusion: our investigation confirmed a cholera outbreak with a high CFR, especially among females. Poor hygienic practices such as drinking of un-boiled well water, improper waste disposal and not washing hands regularly were found to be factors that propagate the outbreak. We recommend that messaging that encourage good hygienic practices be intensified by the government officials in Zaria.