Conference abstract

A descriptive characterization of acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria, 2015

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(92).12 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.92.673

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Keywords: Acute flaccid paralysis, surveillance, wild polio virus, Nigeria
Opening ceremony

A descriptive characterization of acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria, 2015

Abdulmumini Maikudi Kassim1,&, Abayomi Olufemi1, Garba Mustapha1, Halimat Ayanleke2

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Abdulmumini Maikudi Kassim, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: World Health Organization defines Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as a syndrome characterized by sudden and rapid weakness of the extremities. The outbreak of wild polio virus in Borno State in August, 2016, necessitated intensive responses in the northern parts of Nigeria with several Polio Immunization Plus Days activities. This study aimed at descriptively characterization of AFP in Nigeria, with a view of identifying the population at risk of AFP, to assess the health seeking behavior of patients with AFP and to determine the pattern of paralysis.

Methods: we did a retrospective descriptive data analysis of AFP cases in Nigeria from January to December, 2015. We obtained data from National Primary Health Care Development Agency. The cases were analyzed descriptively in terms of person, place and time using Epi info 7. For person, we analyzed in terms of age, gender, vaccination status and pattern of paralysis. Place was analyzed in terms of location and specific prevalence. For time we plotted a bar chart of proportion of cases by month of the year to note which month had the most cases.

Results: total AFP was 13,980 and 7,894 (56.47%) were males. The mean age of cases was 3 years. Less than 5 years had the highest number of AFP cases 5933 (77.30%). Kano State recorded the highest number of AFP cases 1,338 (9.98%) and prevalence of 60 per 100, 000 population .The highest number of cases was seen in the month of June. Most patients, 8,080 (58.12%) sought care from home. 60 (0.43%) cases had not received any dose of oral polio vaccine while 12,228 (87.5%) received at least four doses of oral polio vaccines. Left leg was most affected 8,783 (63%). 13,337 (95.4%) had complete paralysis after three days. A total of 10,233 (73.2%) cases had asymmetrical paralysis and those with sudden flaccid paralysis were 13,807 (98.8%).

Conclusion: no wild polio virus was isolated as the vaccination status of cases was good. Most cases had asymmetrical paralysis and sought care at home. Health promotion was instituted to encourage patients to seek care in health clinics to improve outcome.