Conference abstract

Socio-economic inequality of childhood routine immunization coverage in Nigeria: analysis of 2003 - 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey data

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2018:8(97).13 Dec 2018.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2018.8.97.678

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Keywords: Inequality, concentration index, immunization, Nigeria
Opening ceremony

Socio-economic inequality of childhood routine immunization coverage in Nigeria: analysis of 2003 - 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey data

Bola Biiaminu Lawal1,&, Lawal Ahmadu2, Abdulhakeem Olorukooba2, Tukur Dahiru2, Olatayo Olawepo3

1Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 3Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Nigeria

&Corresponding author
Bola Biiaminu Lawal, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: immunization coverage for Nigeria is still below the 90% target set in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) and Nigeria is one of the 3 countries that host about 50% of the world’s infants without the third dose of Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT-3) vaccination. Ensuring that routine immunization is equitably extended to all children irrespective of their socio-economic status is a key component of GVAP. We compared the socio-economic inequality of childhood routine immunization coverage in Nigeria from 2003 - 2013.

Methods: we analyzed data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey for 2003, 2008 and 2013 for inequalities of DPT-3 coverage.We used concentration index (CI) to measure socio-economic inequalities at national and sub-national (geopolitical zones) levels. F-statistic was used to test for statistically significant difference in CI across groups at p < 0.05. Data was analysed using Stata 13 software.

Results: the CI for DPT-3 coverage in Nigeria was 0.398 in 2003, 0.528 in 2008 and 0.591 in 2013 (p < 0.001). At the sub-national level, in 2003, 2008 and 2013 respectively, the CI were: 0.425, 0.358 and 0.479 (p = 0.105) in North-Central; 0.148, 0.164 and 0.303 (p < 0.001) in North-East; 0.108, 0.161 and 0.275 (p < 0.001) in North-West; 0.681, 0.326 and 0.226 (p < 0.001) in South-East; 0.427, 0.445 and 0.244 (p = 0.407) in South-South; 0.295, 0.351 and 0.380 (p = 0.325) in South-West.

Conclusion: there was an increase in socio-economic inequality of DPT-3 coverage in Nigeria from 2003 - 2013 in favor of those with higher socio-economic status. At the sub-national level, only the North-Eastern and North-Western zones showed an increase in socio-economic inequality of DPT-3 coverage from 2003 - 2013 in favour of those with higher socio-economic status. We recommend that targeted interventions should be introduced to reduce the inequality of immunization coverage in Nigeria particularly in the North-Eastern and North-Western zones of the country.