Conference abstract

CYP2C9 and NAT2 genes polymorphism in type 2 diabetes patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Pan African Medical Journal - Conference Proceedings. 2021:11(31).01 Dec 2021.
doi: 10.11604/pamj-cp.2021.11.31.961

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Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, susceptibility, NAT2 gene, CYP2C9 gene, Cameroon

CYP2C9 and NAT2 genes polymorphism in type 2 diabetes patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Cedric Hermann Dongmo1, Magellan Guewo Fokeng1, Jean Paul Chedjou1, Mbu’u Mbanwi Cyrille1, Ngum Lesley Ngum1, Camille Paoula Bisseck1, Tah Calvino Fomboh1, Jean Claude Mbanya2, Wilfred Fon Mbacham1

1The Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon, 2Centre National d'Hypertension et de Diabète, Hôpital Central de Yaoundé, Cameroun

&Corresponding author

Introduction: Diabetes is a real public health problem around the world (1.6 million deaths). Four point two percent (4.2%) of adults in Africa and 7.2% in Cameroon are suffering from diabetes. Awareness is regarded as being poor, and the concentrations of the disease vary considerably between different ethnic groups. Although several environmental factors influence the onset of type 2 diabetes, genetic factors contribute to an individual vulnerability to this disease. We therefore undertook to study the polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and NAT2 genes and their correlation if any in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done by convenience sampling with consent of 70 participants, whose blood samples were taken followed by preclinical (Fasting plasma glucose) and anthropometric measurements. Blood samples were spotted on filter paper for DNA extraction by Chelex 100 method. After extraction, the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the genes were detected by PCR-RFLP method. Results: NAT2 gene characterization revealed the presence of NAT2*7, NAT2*6, NAT2*5, and NAT2*4 alleles with the predominance of the NAT2*5 (35%). The predominance of slow metabolizing phenotype stood at 72.9%. For the CYP2C9 gene, characterization revealed the presence of CYP2C9*1 wild-type and CYP2C9*3 mutant alleles with wild-type allele predominating at 54%; The rapid and intermediate metabolizing phenotypes were present at 91%. Correlation tests showed that, for NAT2 gene, individuals with the “slow metabolizer” phenotype were more likely to have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), while those with “intermediate metabolizer” phenotype were less likely to develop this disease (OR = 3.9740, P = 0.0009 and OR = 0.1406, P = 0.0044, respectively). On the contrary, the CYP2C9 had no discernable predisposition to T2DM. Conclusion: this study demonstrates that the slow metabolizer phenotype of NAT2 could be associated with the development of T2DM contrary to the polymorphism (CYP2C9*3) of the CYP2C9 gene which would have no role in the development of this disease in Yaoundé patients in Cameroon. We developed a kit and a manual of procedures for the identification of these polymorphisms.